Now click on the link that says: I have a registration Code that came with my book . | When asked to enter your code, type in your Unique Access Number. References: 1. Object –Oriented –Programming in C++ by E Balagurusamy. 2. Object –Oriented –Programming with ANSI & Turbo C++ by Ashok N. Kamthane. Language English. E BalaguruSamy – C++. Identifier EBalagurusamyObjectOrientedProgrammingWithC. Identifier-ark ark:// t0rr4g61p.

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Whai are the merits and demerits of using friend functions? We can also write our own manipulators as follows: Normally, a small kLzi: To build today’s complex software it is just not enough to put together a sequence of programming statements and sets of procedures and modules; we need to incorporate sound construciiun techniques Esrsd prrigrarn structures that are easy to comprehend, implement antl msidiFy.

E Balagurusamy Object Oriented Programming With C++

This takes the following form: Class 0 Private Section c Public Suetic-n. O Multipath inheritance may lead to duplication of i nberiied members from a ‘grandparent’ base class.

It also provides a greater flexibility to the prygtammerfi, A function can be written with enure parameters than are required for its most common application.

Any non-virtual bases are then constructed before the derived class constructor is executed.

In other words, it sets the value of every data element of 13 to the value of the corresponding data element of They are usually grouped under two sections, namely, private and public to denote which of the members are private and which of them are public. For instance, consider a situation where we need to use two different types of operands for a binary operator, say.


A class can inherit properties from more than one class which is known as multiple inheritance. This approach takes a view that an object can be a collection of many other objects. ArglistD provides the parameters that are necessary to initialise the members of the derived class.

The difference between a member function and a normal function is that a member function uses a membership ‘identity’ label in the header to indicate the claas to which it belongs. String manipulations using the string class are discussed in Chapter They arc simply variables or constants. For example, the statement Integer- 12 N L-w data and functions can be easily added whenever necessary.

These functions and variables are collectively called class members. Since the strings vary greatly in siie, we use new to allocate memory For each string and a pointer variable to point to the string array. Actually, the member functions are created and placed in the memory space only once when they are defined as a part of a class specification.

As pointed out earlier, class variables are known as objects. In balzguruswamy second case, the function call passes the appropriate values from main! The following two versions are equivalent: Object-Oriented Systems Development 46H Once the structure type has been defined, we can create variables of that type using declarations that are similar to the built-in type declarations, For example, consider the following declaration: When both the forms are declared, standard argument matching is applied balaguruswamyy resolve any ambiguity.

For example, the multiplication operator will enjoy higher precedence than the addition operator. The compiler will generate an error when this condition is violated.



One advantage of dynamic initialization is that we can provide various initialization formats, using overloaded constructors, This provides the flexibility of using different format of data at run time depending upon the situation. We cannot change the basic meaning if an operator.

In C, the global version tifa variable cannot be acceded from within the inner block. The base constructors are called and executed before executing the statements in the body of the derived constructor. It may be either e member function or a friend function. The symbol is called the scope resolution operator. The new technology promises greater programmer productivity, better quality of software and lesser maintenance cost. There are a number of issues that need to be tackled to reap some of the benefits stated above.

The list includes details oos as the code number and price of each item. When a base class is privately inherited by balaguriswamy derived class, “public members’ of the base class become “private members 1 of the derived class and therefore the public members of the base class can, only be accessed by the member functions of the derived class, They are inaccessible to the objects of the derived class.

The approach of using one or mere ef these basic control constructs in programming is known as structured programming, an important technique in software engineering.