p>Extractos de hoja de vid silvestre (EHVS) (Vitis spp.) de tres accesiones (P- , E y TN-4) se evaluaron in vitro a 6, 8 y 12 % v/v con el. Caracterización genética de aislamientos de Botrytis cinerea obtenidos en vides población local de aislamientos de B. cinerea obtenidos de vid en Argentina. gris en diversos cultivos de importancia económica, tales como el arándano, la vid, 01 Esporulación (signo) de Botrytis cinerea en durazno en poscosecha.
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Botrytis cinerea is an ascomycete with a high genetic diversity and complex population structure, as reported from several hosts and sites. However, nothing is known about its genetic diversity in Argentina. Botryris aim of this work is to estimate the genetic diversity of a local population of B.
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In this work, 35 strains that had been isolated from grapevines were genotyped for the presence of transposable elements and PCR-based RFLP molecular markers. The obtained results were compared with those from a large French population of the fungus, and used to perform a population genetics analysis using the Genepop software.
All the analysed isolates were classified as Group II according to the most recent proposed classification and showed a high degree of genetic diversity, with 14 different haplotypes. A significant difference in allele frequency was recorded between the local and French populations. These comparisons between fungal populations, led to cinefea detection of a high level of diversity and the differentiation between local and French groups of isolates.
This was confirmed by an Fst value of 0. This work constitutes the first report on the genetic diversity of B. Esto bitrytis confirmado por un valor Fst de 0, superior al previamente reportado para otras comparaciones de este tipo. In Argentina, the area under grapevine Vitis vinifera Cjnerea. Incidence cineres fungal diseases in the viid is lower compared with other viticulture regions of the world. However, grey mould and bunch rot are two of the diseases that have been reported to affect grapevines in Mendoza.
The fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers. It can cause severe losses in the quality and volume of grapes harvested for wine production or fruit market. It has a wide host range and affects a number of plant organs. It is involved in several types of rots and is responsible for severe economic losses in vegetable, fruit and ornamental crops.
This variation has been studied using restriction fragment length polymorphism RFLP7 vi presence or absence of transposable elements, 3,10 random amplification of polymorphic DNA RAPD markers, 18 amplified fragment length polymorphisms AFLP15 and microsatellites, 5,8,11 amongst other molecular typing techniques.
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Early population structure studies for this fungus have suggested the presence of a species complex that is based on the presence or absence of two transposable elements boty and flipper. At that moment, two sibling sympatric species were defined: Isolates that contain only one element boty or flipper have also been hotrytis. Group I shows a restricted host and geographic gid and comprises only vacuma isolates. Group II has a wider host range, and includes the isolates that are most deleterious for grapevines and other hosts.
Group II contains both fid and transposa isolates. There are no available data about the genetic variability of local isolates of the fungus, nor about the population structure of the fungus in Mendoza, but a differential response of grapevine isolates to fungicides and biocontrol agents has been reported.
The objectives of this work were to provide information about the occurrence of genetic variants of B. Considering the amount of data previously published at the dinerea of the study, PCR-RFLP and presence of transposable elements were chosen as genotyping methods. A total of 35 isolates of B. One foreign strain previously genotyped as vacuma was also analysed during all the evaluation process as control.
This isolate vi kindly supplied by Dr. Origin and cultivar of the 35 vineyard isolates of Botrytis cinerea included in the study. The yield and integrity of the DNA were checked by agarose gel electrophoresis. PCR amplification was performed using primers for the ribosomal intergenic spacer IGSthe nitrate reductase and ATP synthase genes previously reported by Giraud et al. The resulting een were checked by vis gel electrophoresis, and the reactions repeated three cinerew for each PCR marker prior to the RFLP analysis.
To type the isolates genetically using RFLPs, the following previously described cierea markers 7 were used: In addition, the IGS amplification fragment was digested with Mva l. The restriction pattern for each enzyme was analysed according to Giraud et al. The samples of B. Comparisons were done with the entire French population, and with subpopulations that were defined on the basis of sampling sites in the Champagne region.
In order to characterize the local population of B. The Genepop software estimates the P value for Fisher’s exact test using a Markov chain. For the 36 samples that were analysed 35 local strains and the previously genotyped vacuma foreign strainthe amplified PCR products showed the expected size for all the targets tested.
All the local strains contained both the boty and flipper transposable elements, and were therefore typed as transposa -type according to Giraud et al. The frequency of occurrence of the different alleles is shown in Table 2and the restriction fragment patterns for some of the different alleles are shown in Fig.
Allele 4 has bltrytis reported as a private allele for a population, 7 and allele 5 was recorded for the first time in this study of local isolates.
Percentage of each allele observed clnerea the 35 B. The identity of the alleles is the same as reported previously. Allele frequency reported for the Champagne population. Alleles reported previously as exclusive of a French population.
RFLP molecular markers showing its alleles. Lanes 7—8 Rsa I restricted Nitrate reductase alleles 0 and 1. Lane 9 bp molecular weigth marker. Fourteen different haplotypes were found among the 35 strains analysed considering the polymorphic loci.
Las enfermedades de la vid – Agromática
Two of these haplotypes were most frequent, being each one present in eight and seven samples data not shown. The genic differentiation between the Mendoza and Champagne populations showed P values of less than 0.
When the genic differentiation between the local population and the four individual French subpopulations was analysed, the P values were less than 0. The population pairwise Cid values were calculated for the data sets that corresponded to the Mendoza and French populations mentioned above, and the results are displayed in Table Pairwise Fst values between the Mendoza and French populations.
Estimated Fst value between Mendoza and individual Champagne subpopulations. Estimated Fst value comparing all French isolates together bofrytis only one population. Several studies have reported B. Due to the fact that no boty -only, flipper- only, or vacuma -type isolates were identified in this study, we cannot conclude that these sibling species are sympatric in Mendoza vineyards.
In spite of the limited number of samples analysed, our results agree with the previous reports about the absence or very low frequency of Group I isolates amongst those that vix grapevines. The isolates that shared the same haplotype were not related geographically. Also, in previous works, the resistance levels for two widely used fungicides was evaluated, but no correlation was found between this behaviour and the haplotypes information.
As stated by Giraud et al. Therefore, these areas act as completely isolated regions. The Fst values between the Champagne subpopulations were low as was observed for other comparisons of sites within a viticulture region. This study represents the first report of the genetic characterization of a B.
The information on genetic diversity that was obtained and the population differentiation data suggest the need of a further study, in order to establish the biological impact of these findings e. Authors have nothing to declare. Authors have no conflict of interests. The authors thank Ms.
Las enfermedades de la vid
In addition, we wish to thank Dr. Genetic characterization of grapevine-infecting Botrytis cinerea isolates from Argentina. Background Botrytis cinerea is an ascomycete with a high genetic diversity and complex population structure, as reported from several hosts and sites.
However, nothing is known about its genetic diversity in Argentina. Aims The aim of this work is to estimate the genetic diversity of a local population of B. Methods In this work, 35 strains that had been isolated from grapevines were genotyped for the presence of transposable elements and PCR-based RFLP molecular markers. The obtained results were compared with those from a large French population of the fungus, and used to perform a population genetics analysis using the Genepop software.
Results All the analysed isolates were classified as Group II according to the most recent proposed classification and showed a high degree of genetic diversity, with 14 different haplotypes. A significant difference in allele frequency was recorded between the local and French populations. Conclusions These comparisons between fungal populations, led to the detection of a high level of diversity and the differentiation between local and French groups of isolates. It can cause severe losses in the quality and volume of grapes harvested for wine production or fruit market.
Considering the amount of data previously published at the time of the study, PCR-RFLP and presence of transposable elements were chosen as genotyping methods.
Material and botrytiz Fungal isolates A total of 35 isolates of B. Origin and cultivar of the 35 vineyard isolates of Botrytis cinerea included in the study. Allele reported for the first time. Allele not reported for this population. Locus not cinerew for this population. Pairwise Fst values between the Mendoza and French populations. Estimated Fst value between Mendoza and individual Champagne subpopulations. Estimated Fst value comparing all French isolates together as only one population.
An osmosensing histidine kinase mediates dicarboximide fungicide resistance in Botryotinia fuckeliana Botrytis cinerea. Fungal Genet Biol, 36pp.
Boty, a long-terminal-repeat retroelement in the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Appl Environ Microbiol, 61pp.
Partition of the Botrytis cinerea complex in France using multiple gene genealogies.