A Survey on Cluster Head Selection in CGSR Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network. Article (PDF Available) · January with Reads. This paper surveys the routing protocols forAd Hoc mobile wireless Clusterhead Gateway Switch Routing (CGSR) [Chiang97]uses as basis. The CGSR lies under table driven or proactive protocol based on routing to deal with this problem we have used PSO for choosing cluster-head in CGSR.

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Thus, the relative velocity between nodes and is. The MPBC Mobility Prediction-Based Clustering in [ 22 ] elects the node, which has a low variance of the relative mobility values with respect to its neighbors, taking the cluster head responsibility. References Prootcol referenced by this paper. Each cluster elects a cluster head according to specific rules.

A Clustering Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Citations Publications citing this paper. Through the law of cosines, there exists where. And this mechanism is very helpful to reduce the route reestablishing expenses and end-to-end pfotocol.

In hierarchical-based routing [ 7 — 10 ], all nodes are divided into different clusters zones.

Namely, at first, the source sends a REQ request message to its attached cluster head and then the cluster head will broadcast this REQ to its adjacent cluster head through gateway nodes, and the process will continue until the REQ arrives at the cluster which belongs to the destination node. Note that, in order to ensure the validity and stability of route, the local repairing process can take place, only when the intercluster routes are invalidated.

Routing protocols of MANETs presented currently can be classified into four categories according to the mechanism of updating [ 34 ]. The node is fixed in coordinate originalbut moves along the vector. NULL, cluster head, cluster member, gateway, and cluster guest. Routing Search for additional papers on this topic.

Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks

protcol Note that only when the node receives more than two consecutive RTJ messages from another certain node, should they establish a new cluster. The physical layer uses the free space model and takes the actual aeronautical communication parameters into account, such as transmitter power and protockl sensitivity.


Upon receiving, the neighbors will send RTJ request to join message to the cluster head, and cluster head will send ATJ affirm to join back when agreeing. And the conclusion in [ 24 ] reveals that frequent protodol changing consumes lots of network resources and highly overlapped clusters decrease the efficiency of hierarchical structure.

But when a cluster member receives more than one ATJ message, this denotes that protofol node lies in separate clusters but within transmission range of one another; therefore it will be elected as a gateway between these clusters. The simulation parameters are shown in Table 1. When a cluster enters the transmission range of another cluster and the variance of cost metric of the two cluster heads is small, which denotes that the two clusters are worth merging.

Some have been proposed in literatures [ 17 — 20 ], and most of them are to satisfy the specific demands, such as the lowest ID cluster and the highest connectivity. It is obvious that more nodes will lead to bigger average end-to-end delay. Hence the routing overhead will be decreased. Protpcol dynamic topology of a mobile ad hoc network poses a real challenge in the design of hierarchical routing protocol, which combines proactive with xgsr routing protocols and takes advantages of both.

Clustering is a mechanism to dynamically group nodes in MANETs into logically separating or nonoverlapping entities, called clusters.

For example, in Figure 4source node 1 and destination 5 are in the same cluster. From Figure 9it can be seen that, with the speed increasing, the average cluster head holding time of all the schemes is decreased. Prior to the cluster initialization, all nodes are in the state of NULL. Traffic sources are CBR constant bit ratewith the rate of 10 packets per second and bytes per packet.

When an existing link is failure such as the node on the existing path that moves out of its one-hop neighbor or exits from the network or the receiving node on the existing path cannot receive message from sending node cgst of deterioration of the channelthe local repairing process would take place. To receive news and publication protocll for Mathematical Problems in Engineering, enter your email address in the box below.


Here, we set the initial value of and to andrespectively, and adjusted them adaptively according to real-life network. Indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

A mobile ad hoc network MANET [ 12 ] is a wireless communication network, at which nodes use peer-to-peer packets transmission and multihop routes to communication. Showing of 2 extracted citations. View at Scopus J. If not, the node must perform a route discovery procedure to acquire a route to the destination.

Selection of cluster-head using PSO in CGSR protocol

And the cluster members of vgsr attached cluster broadcast cluster member node ID, cluster IDs messages back to the cluster head periodically, where the node ID is the identifier of the broadcasting node, and cluster ID is the list of clusters of which the node is a member. As a result of it, the cluster head holding time is decreased.

Note that when node 3 receives the REP, it will send protoco, message along the local shortest route i. Upon receiving, it will compare the cost metric with itself, and the bigger one will be elected as a cluster head.

In this way, it can reduce the cluster head change rate, and the ripple effects caused by reclustering can be ignored. We assume that nodes and keep their velocity and direction at the duration, and arrives at point at the moment. In HCA-R, unless necessary, it will not activate the routing update process as far as possible to avoid additional expenses in both intracluster and intercluster communication and route maintenance phrase. Each node is assigned a weight indicating whether the node is suitable to act as a cluster head.

In Figure 1 athere are two equations: If the source and destination are in the same cluster, the data packet can be transmitted directly or relayed by cluster head.