Checkpointing and rollback recovery are also established techniques for achiev- Checkpointing in Distributed Database Systems. As you can see from my description below and other answers, the mechanisms of a checkpoint and recovery after a crash differ from one RDBMS to another. The checkpoint (or syncpoint) is defined as the point of synchronization between database and the transaction log file. The most common method of database.

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For example, in case of checkpoihting or resource unavailability, the system aborts an active transaction. It reads T n has changed the value of X, from V 1 to V 2. As time passes, the log file may grow chefkpointing big to be handled at all. To ease this situation, most modern DBMS use the concept of ‘checkpoints’. When a system crashes, it may have several transactions being executed and various files opened for them to modify the data items. That is, the database is modified immediately after every operation.

Examples may include hard-disks, magnetic tapes, flash memory, and non-volatile battery backed up RAM. Checkpoint declares a point before which the DBMS was in consistent state, and all the checkpointnig were committed. For example, main memory and cache memory are examples of volatile storage.


Log is a sequence of records, which maintains the records of actions performed by a transaction. DBMS is a highly complex system with hundreds of transactions being executed every second. Maintaining the logs of each transaction, and writing them onto some stable storage before actually modifying the database.


Transactions are made of various operations, which are atomic in nature. If it fails or crashes amid transactions, it is expected that the system would follow some sort of algorithm or techniques to recover lost data.

A transaction may be in the middle of some operation; the DBMS must ensure the atomicity of the transaction in this case. It is important that the logs are written prior to the actual modification and stored on a ln storage media, which is failsafe.

Disk failures include formation of bad sectors, unreachability to the disk, disk head crash or any other failure, which destroys all or a part of disk storage. All the transactions in the redo-list and their previous logs are removed and then redone before saving their logs.

They are huge chekpointing data storage capacity, but slower in accessibility. In early days of technology evolution, it was a common problem where hard-disk drives or storage drives used to fail frequently.

They are fast but can store only a small amount of information. We have already described the storage system.

This is called transaction failure where only a few transactions or processes are hurt. But according to ACID properties of DBMS, atomicity of transactions as a whole must be maintained, that is, either all the operations are executed or none.


The durability and robustness of a DBMS depends on its complex architecture and its underlying hardware and system software. Checkpoint is a mechanism where all the previous logs are removed from the system and stored permanently in a storage disk. Volatile storage devices are placed very close to the CPU; normally they are embedded onto the chipset itself.

At the time of recovery, it would become hard for the recovery system to backtrack all logs, and then start recovering. All the transactions in the undo-list are then undone and their logs are removed. Maintaining shadow paging, where the changes are done on a volatile memory, and later, the actual database is updated.

DBMS – Data Recovery

Keeping and maintaining logs in real time and in real environment may fill out all the memory space available in the system. When more than one transaction are being checklointing in parallel, the logs are interleaved. For example, interruptions in power supply may cause the failure of underlying hardware or software failure.