The water vascular system is a hydraulic system used by echinoderms, such as sea stars and sea urchins, for locomotion, food and waste transportation, and respiration. The system is composed of canals connecting numerous tube feet. Echinoderms move by alternately contracting muscles that force water into it is restricted to water channels in sponges and the hydrostatic. Phylum Echinodermata Ex. Sea stars, sea cucumbers, feather stars, sea urchins, . water circulates through = hydrostatic skeleton unique to Echinoderms; Tube feet: create suction to adhere to substrate Movement. Echinoderms usually inhabit shallow coastal waters and ocean trenches. ➢ organisms in this . hydrostatic pressure permits movement. ➢ Path of water in the.

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The bodies of all members work on a unique hydrostatic principle.

The hydrostatic skeleton is closed fluid-filled system that terminates as a series of blind tubes called tube-feet. Each tube foot ends in a sucker. Changing the local pressure within the tube feet allows to be extended and contracted.

Extensions and contractions of these tube feet occur as waves down the length of the arms or ray and this allows the animal to echinoder,s itself and to move particulate matter down the arm. The water from this system circulates separately from that in the body cavity.

It is drawn through a pore into a canal surrounding the mouth and circulated throughout the body into the myriads of tube feet. When suspended particles of food touches an arm, the tube feet fasten on to it and pass it from one to another until it reaches the groove that runs down the upper surface of the arm to the central mouth.

Although stalked, sessile sea-lilies were the most abundant crinoids in the fossil records, the most common form today is the stalkless feather stars. Chapter2 – Evolution of Biodiversity. Evolving and keeping the shell Molluscs: Secondary loss of the shell Echinoderms: Penta-symmetrical creatures of the oceans Echinoderms: A hydrostatic structure Echinoderms diversity: Segmentation the successful formula Early Arthropods: The fossil record Living descendents of the Trilobites Crustaceans: Arthropod success in the echinoderrms Arthropod Exoskeleton: Fertilization and dispersal, the first issues Mosses: Possibly the earliest land plants?


Fossils of the earliest land plants What were the earliest land animals? Issues of reproduction Land plants: Making their mark A Forest Environment Insects: The greatest conquerors of all?

Locomotion in Star Fish | Invertebrates

Still working on the reproduction issue Cycads: Getting to grips with the reproduction on land Conifers: A successful formula Earliest plant defences against herbivores Plants and Insects find “mutual benefit” Beetle pollination Plants learn to manipulate The most bizarre pollination systems? A secrete ingredient for success? Clothed in silk Metamorphosis An insect’s first flying lessons Insects: Finding your soul mate An Insect’s approach to rearing your young Insects: The limitations A variety of habitats Colonizing the land A burrowing existence The accomplished jumpers The sticky tongue Sound production Amphibians: Mating A terrestrial environment for breeding Protecting the young Marsupial frogs Parental care: Ectothermy vs Endothermy Breeding mechanisms of the ancestral reptile Skull structure The Anapsids The Diapsids The Synapsids First dinosaur characteristics Dinosaur fossils Gigantic herbivores and carnivores Temperature regulation limits energy use The beginning of the end for the kings Impressive parental care Conquering various living environments The flight of the dinosaur The Pterosaur: The take-off The Ptesosaurs: Not just a gliding motion The extinction Mammals’ role in extinction Change in climate Crocodiles Crocodiles: Social life The Order Chelonia: Nurturing the young Snakes: Differentiation and adaptation The structure of feathers Feather coloration: Melanins and carotenoids Feather Differentiation of plumage Feathers: Specialized The Birds of Paradise Courtship: Copulation Incubating the eggs Protecting the eggs Precocial and altricial chicks The relationship between the anatomy and flying Flight: Speed and distance Migration: A polyphyletic origin The earliest true mammal The Opossums: The pouch Caring for the young Marsupial fossils Carnivorous marsupials The splitting world Evidence supporting continental drifting An alternative method of nourishing the young Placental mammals vs Marsupials Marsupials: Opportunity to evolve Survival today Marsupials and placental mammals: A resemblance Major differences The rat kangaroo Kangaroo: Reproduction The effect of drought on reproduction The placental mammals dominate The placenta The mammalian sexual cycle Immunological rejection Placental mammals: Going underground Mole tunnels as traps Insectivores: A sticky tongue The pongolins Pongolins: Characteristics Various species of armadillo Specialist ant-eaters: Lack of teeth Taking to the skies The Colugo: Sonar equipment Methods for avoiding predation by bats Bats: An aquatic existence Whales: Adapting to swimming life The diet of whales and the sounds of dolphins Dolphins: The teeth and digestion Elephants: Aiding digestion Compensation by plants Ruminants Animals prepare for food shortage The hibernating dormouse Flying squirrels Monkeys: Coordination development The Sloth: Mating and predators The forest floor: Vegetation The large herbivore A solitary life Specialized meat-eaters Grass: Highly advanced The spread of the grassland Smaller is better Mole rats: Safety in the burrows Mole rats: Organized social systems Prairie dogs: Selective cultivation The viscacha Placental migration Proto-horses: Lengthening the legs Proto-horses: The teeth and skull Descendants of the forest dwelling antelopes Antelope: Safety in herds Breeding arrangements The improved predator Lions: The use of scent The Ring-tail: Sign posting The Tarsier Monkeys: Sight is key Monkeys: The use of colourful displays and sound Monkeys: Supporting the great weight The Orang Utan: It’s repertoire The Orang Utan: Solitude and size The Gibbons Gibbons: The use of the arms Gorillas: Family groups Similarities between Gorillas and humans Gorillas: A placid existence Chimpanzees: A friendly gesture Chimpanzees: Toolmaker and hunter Homo erectus: Methods of communication Recognizing one another Gestures: Providing information Homo erectus: A hydrostatic structure The bodies of all members work on a unique hydrostatic principle.