IMAGE ORTHICON CAMERA TUBE PDF

A sectional view of an image orthicon is shown in the below figure. It has three main sections: image section, scanning section and electron. Image orthicon definition, a camera tube, more sensitive than the orthicon, in which an electron image generated by a photocathode is focused on one side of a. The image orthicon (10) was developed during World War II to solve some of the problems of its predecessors in the camera-tube family. These included.

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Early color cameras used the obvious technique of using separate tueb, green and blue image tubes in conjunction with a color separatora technique still in use with 3CCD solid state cameras today. Compared to Saticons, Plumbicons have much higher resistance to burn-in, and comet and trailing artifacts from bright lights in the shot.

Video camera tube

Finally, an electron beam periodically sweeps across the target, effectively scanning the stored image, discharging each granule, and producing an electronic signal like in the iconoscope. In detail, coils in a deflection yoke extend some distance beyond the neck of the tube, and lie cmera to the flare of the bulb; they have a truly distinctive appearance.

Strange from EMI[17] and by H.

Trinicon is a registered trademark of Sony. Proceedings of the IRE, volume 27, issue 9. Afterand the introduction of the diode-gun Plumbicon tube, the resolution of both types was so high, compared to the maximum limits of the broadcasting standard, that the Saticon’s resolution advantage became moot.

Retrieved January 25, The Iconoscope, America’s latest television favourite. Thus the contributing images could be separated without any reference electrodes in the tube.

Image orthicon | electronics |

The result is an image painted in positive charge, with the brightest portions having the largest positive charge. The other types had semiconducting targets which did not have this problem.

The electron gun structure produces a beam of electrons that is accelerated towards the target. In the image store, light falls upon the photocathode which is a photosensitive plate at a very negative potential approx.

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It will be appreciated that when the beam moves from a less positive portion of the target to a more positive portion, the signal output voltage across the load resistor changes in the positive direction.

Newvicon is a registered trademark of Matsushita from They have excellent resolution compared to image orthicons, but lack the artificially sharp edges of IO tubes, which cause some of the viewing audience to perceive them as softer.

These focus coils are essentially as long as the tubes themselves, and surround the deflection yoke coils. The face of the target remote from the photo-cathode is scanned by an electron beam emanating from a triode electron gun, the camea being so adjusted that the beam approaches the target with a substantially zero velocity and is, therefore, unable to produce unwanted secondary electrons. This page was imagf edited on 14 Decemberat Multiplier Section The return beam, comprising electrons which are not required for neutralising the charge on the target, travels back along approximately the same path as the outgoing electron beam and is directed into a five-stage electron multiplier where it is amplified to become the output video signal.

The later Vidicon tube and its descendants see below do not exhibit this effect, and so could not be used for broadcast purposes until special “detail correction” circuitry could be vamera. The original iconoscope was noisy, had a high ratio of interference to signal, cameea ultimately gave disappointing results, especially when compared to the high definition mechanical scanning systems then becoming available.

Since the number of electrons emitted at any point in the photocathode has a distribution corresponding to the brightness of the optical image, an electron image of the scene or picture gets formed on the target side of the photocoating. Each individual electron from the electron image produces several secondary electrons after reaching the target, so that an amplification effect is produced.

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While ijage iconoscope and the intermediate orthicon used capacitance between a multitude of small but discrete light sensitive collectors and an isolated signal plate for reading video information, the image orthicon employed direct charge readings from a continuous electronically charged collector.

Wireless World, number Disk orfhicon was synchronized with vertical scanning so that each vertical scan in sequence was for a different primary color. Its surface consists of selenium with trace amounts of arsenic and tellurium added SeAsTe to make the signal more stable. As a umage, the Trinicon featured a larger dynamic range of operation. However, it imabe to flare in bright light, causing a dark halo to be seen around the object; this anomaly is referred to as ” blooming ” in the broadcast industry when image orthicon tubes were in operation.

An electron beam periodically sweeps across the plate, effectively scanning the stored image and discharging each capacitor in turn such that the electrical output from each capacitor is proportional to the average intensity of the tubbe striking it between each discharge event.

Image orthicon

The image orthicon, sometimes abbreviated IO was common in American broadcasting from until The edge field at the end of the beam focusing electrode is controlled by adjusting the potential of the decelerator grid No. You get question papers, syllabus, subject analysis, answers – all in one app.

Archived from the original on 17 August This technology was a precursor to modern microbolometer technology. Originally developed by Toshiba in as chalniconPasecon is a registered trademark of Heimann GmbH from The life and times of A D Blumlein. The original iconoscope was very noisy [67] due to the secondary electrons released from the photoelectric mosaic of the charge storage plate when the scanning beam swept it across.