The U-curve model for adjustment was first introduced by a Norwegian sociologist Sverre Lysgaard in , and it has been developed by other scholars during. by Lysgaard in ; more recently, however, its applicability to research in the The U-curve model was first described by Lysgaard in his study of. “Adjustment in a foreign society: Norwegian Fullbright grantees visiting the United States.” by Sverre Lysgaard, International Social.

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As a teacher of intercultural communication, I am confronted with a need to translate theoretical concepts into real-life situations. I would thus describe my first year as representative of the holiday stage, with any early sense of frustration or alienation overshadowed lysgarad the excitement about a new home.

To these may be added a possible reverse culture shock, which I have chosen to ignore because it is of limited use in relation to the present argument. According to the methodological categories established by Dr. It is thus important to recognise that lydgaard timing of this crisis depends on individual circumstances, which is not clear from my terminology.

At this stage, they reflect, businesses may worry “that the employee, who is now at home in another culture, does not totally represent them anymore. All live in the Copenhagen lysfaard, which was where I was based at the time.

U-curve — Moniviestin

Scholars refer to this with a W-curve model, where the second curve is meant to describe the re-entry shock and readjustment. Indeed any issue arising from structural factors may be an advantage, Maureen Guirdham observes, because it postpones an inevitable culture shock: Its symptoms may be physical illness and physical strain as well as psychological frustration, homesickness, depression Varner and Beamer As I have no recordings, I am unable to quote my interviewees, which means that all references are implicit and indirect.

When I started collecting my information, I never planned to impose a super-structure on my data, but as my interviewees kept returning to similar themes, I ended up with this model. First of all, I want to emphasise that employees will change as a result of their stationing overseas. Sojourners find their constant exposure to an alien culture frustrating and may seek consolation in the company of countrymen in similar circumstances.


In a cultural No Man’s Land –

My primary research tools are ethnographic, using qualitative data such as personal observations of intercultural settings 19555 well as research interviews as primary sources. With regard to methodology I recommend the use of a qualitative approach in spite the weaknesses identified above.

Learning from practice, I argue that sojourners will change as a result of their stationing overseas; that the intercultural skills obtained by employees during their sojourn represent a valuable resource for international business; and that companies have an obligation to assist sojourners upon their return to their home culture. The two-year crisis represents a psychological response to the change of identity that has taken place during the first part of the sojourn. They had reached a point in life when they felt an urge to break with their immediate surroundings and start anew in another part of the world.

Professional obligations determine how you organise your daily life; you can now manage without the help of local colleagues, and at some point you ylsgaard wondering. What I found in my interviews was that different phases overlap, and that the second stage of culture shock may very well interact with my third phase of interculturality.

The concept of “situational identities”, on the other hand, is useful because it underlines a basic characteristic of all self-images. When comparing Scotland to Denmark, the expatriates describe their home country as an old-fashioned, masculine culture and generally prefer a more equal relationship between man and woman. Some had already been offered jobs or studentships in Denmark, which determined their move, while others were invited by Danish friends or partners.

George emphasises how he can no longer communicate with his compatriots on the same level — his accent may be Scots, but his verbal and non-verbal language reflects Danish norms and values. They may have been forced to flee their home country, in which case they will not have a job or a secure basis to further their integration. On the whole, they found their first encounter with Denmark fascinating, working their way slowly into a new country.


Lysgaard’s U-Curve of Cultural Adjustment by Mandi Lindner on Prezi

Yet I believe that Euro-Europeans are comparable to other sojourners in terms of cultural adaptation. The structure of such groupings may be formal or informal and can reflect values other than national ones. Most of my Scottish interviewees describe their arrival in Denmark as purely accidental. Nonetheless, they experience mild identity dislocation and disorientation; they also experience bursts of loneliness and homesickness.

As they gain an inside perspective on their new culture, the frustration felt by sojourners is gradually reduced until it reaches a minimum. He may have been different — un-Danish — but in everyday life this did not seem to matter to anyone. It is all part of the process.

With regard to cultural assimilation, an early concern for many sojourners is the establishment of a social network. I will justify my approach on two accounts.

They had come to realise that the nature of their Scottishness was changing as they adapted to the Danish way of life; they were on their way to becoming everyday Danes and 195 Scots.

Although she lysgard been in Denmark for 22 years at the time of the interview, Sandra would still sense this homesickness at times, even if she had realised that a return was no longer a practical solution. My third example — an adoption of norms and values from the host culture — is also the most fundamental transformation, and some theorists deny that this takes place at all.